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Metals – What Are the Differences?

Posted by on Apr 3, 2014 in Blog | 0 comments

Metals – What Are the Differences?

According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical and environmental properties. Different types of steel are produced according to the properties required for their application, and various grading systems are used to distinguish steels based on these properties. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), steels can be broadly categorized into four groups based on their chemical compositions: Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Tool Steels 1) Carbon Steels: Carbon steels contain trace amounts of alloying elements and account for 90% of total steel production. Carbon steels can be further categorized into three groups depending on their carbon content: Low Carbon Steels/Mild Steels contain up to 0.3% carbon Medium Carbon Steels contain 0.3 – 0.6% carbon High Carbon Steels contain more than 0.6% carbon 2) Alloy Steels: Alloy steels contain alloying elements (e.g. manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminum) in varying proportions in order to manipulate the steel’s properties, such as its hardenability, corrosion resistance, strength, formability, weldability or ductility. Applications for alloys steel include pipelines, auto parts, transformers, power generators and electric motors. 3) Stainless Steels: Stainless steels generally contain between 10-20% chromium as the main alloying element and are valued for high corrosion resistance. With over 11% chromium, steel is about 200 times more resistant to corrosion than mild steel. These steels can be divided into three groups based on their crystalline structure: Austenitic: Austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non heat-treatable, and generally contain 18% chromium, 8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. Austenitic steels form the largest portion of the global stainless steel market and are often used in food processing equipment, kitchen utensils and piping. Ferritic: Ferritic steels contain trace amounts of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than 0.1% carbon, along with other alloying elements, such as molybdenum, aluminum or titanium. These magnetic steels cannot be hardened with heat treatment, but can be strengthened by cold works. Martensitic: Martensitic steels contain 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel and up to 1.2% carbon. These magnetic and heat-treatable steels are used in knives, cutting tools, as well as dental and surgical equipment. 4) Tool Steels:  Tool steels contain tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt and vanadium in varying quantities to increase heat resistance and durability, making them ideal for cutting and drilling equipment. Steel products can also be divided by their shapes and related applications: Long/Tubular Products include bars and rods, rails, wires, angles, pipes, and shapes and sections. These products are commonly used in the automotive and construction sectors. Flat Products include plates, sheets, coils and strips. These materials are mainly used in automotive parts, appliances, packaging, shipbuilding, and construction. Other Products include valves, fittings, and flanges and are mainly used as piping materials. Sources and Credit for this article: World Steel Association. Website: http://worldsteel.org Street, Arthur & Alexander, W.O. 1944. Metals in the Service of Man. 11th Edition (1998). Efunda.com. General Properties of Steels. Website: www.efunda.com The American Iron & Steel Institute. www.steel.org...

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Duplex Stainless Steels – A Simplified Guide

Posted by on Apr 3, 2014 in Blog | 0 comments

Duplex Stainless Steels – A Simplified Guide

Duplex stainless steels are becoming more common. They are being offered by all the major stainless steel mills for a number of reasons: Higher strength leading to weight saving Greater corrosion resistance particularly stress corrosion cracking Better price stability Lower price There is a conference on the subject of duplex every 2-3 years where dozens of highly technical papers are presented. There is a lot of marketing activity surrounding these grades. New grades are being announced frequently. Yet, even with all this interest, the best estimates for global market share for duplex are between 1 and 3%. The purpose of this article is to provide a straightforward guide to this steel type. The advantages and disadvantages will be described. Principle of Duplex Stainless Steels The idea of duplex stainless steels dates back to the 1920s with the first cast being made at Avesta in Sweden in 1930. However, it is only in the last 30 years that duplex steels have begun to “take off” in a significant way. This is mainly due to advances in steelmaking techniques particularly with respect to control of nitrogen content. The standard austenitic steels like 304 (1.4301) and ferritic steels like 430 are relatively easy to make and to fabricate. As their names imply, they consist mainly of one phase, austenite or ferrite. Although these types are fine for a wide range of applications, there are some important technical weaknesses in both types: Austenitic – low strength (200 MPa 0.2% PS in solution annealed condition), low resistance to stress corrosion cracking Ferritic – low strength (a bit higher than austenitic, 250 MPa 0.2% PS), poor weldability in thick sections, poor low temperature toughness In addition, the high nickel content of the austenitic types leads to price volatility which is unwelcome to many end users. The basic idea of duplex is to produce a chemical composition that leads to an approximately equal mixture of ferrite and austenite. This balance of phases provides the following: Higher strength – The range of 0.2% PS for the current duplex grades is from 400 – 550 MPa. This can lead to reduced section thicknesses and therefore to reduced weight. This advantage is particularly significant for applications such as: o Pressure Vessels and Storage Tanks o Structural Applications e.g. bridges Good weldability in thick sections – Not as straightforward as austenitics but much better than ferritics. Good toughness – Much better than ferritics particularly at low temperature, typically down to minus 50 deg C, stretching to minus 80 deg C. Resistance to stress corrosion cracking – Standard austenitic steels are particularly prone to this type of corrosion. The kind of applications where this advantage is important include: o Hot water tanks o Brewing tanks o Process plant o Swimming pool structures How the Austenite/Ferrite Balance is Achieved To understand how duplex steels work, first compare the composition of two familiar steels austenitic 304 (1.4301) and ferritic 430 (1.4016).   Structure Grade  EN Number C Si Mn P S N Cr   Ni Mo Ferritic 430 1.4016 0.08 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.015 – 16.0/18.0 – – Austenitic 304 1.4301 0.07 1.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 0.11 17.5/19.5 8.0/10.5 –   The important elements in stainless steels can be classified into ferritisers and austenitisers. Each element favours one structure or the other: Ferritisers –...

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Certa Lok offers significant benefits over alternatives

Posted by on Apr 3, 2014 in Blog | 0 comments

Certa Lok offers significant benefits over alternatives

Certa-Lok® restrained joint PVC pipe systems are uniquely designed to offer significant cost, performance, safety and environmental advantages over competing joint options and materials. The inherent simplicity, outstanding strength and immediate serviceability of the Certa-Lok joint, coupled with the unique characteristics of PVC pipe, deliver powerful advantages that apply to a wide variety of user needs. •Simple, fast installation – far less time and effort •Can be pushed as well as pulled – flexible and reliable •Tool-free assembly – no solvents or special butt-fusion equipment needed •Maintains watertight seal even after multiple assembly/disassembly cycles – a sustainable alternative to constantly buying replacement pipe joints •Extremely resistant to harsh environments, acids and most chemicals – corrosion resistance •Excellent impact and tensile strength – better performance plus the additional benefits of thinner pipe Certa-Lok is made in the United States and trusted around the world. Compliments of: Copyright © 2014 North American Specialty Products www.certa-lok.com/advantage.asp...

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Victaulic Introduces Vic-Press®, Industry’s First Press System for Off-the-Shelf Schedule 10S Stainless Steel Pipe

Posted by on Mar 13, 2014 in Blog | 0 comments

Victaulic Introduces Vic-Press®, Industry’s First Press System for Off-the-Shelf Schedule 10S Stainless Steel Pipe

EASTON, Pa. – May 9, 2011 – Victaulic, the world’s leading manufacturer of mechanical pipe joining systems, introduces Vic-Press, a flame-free press system that joins pipe in a matter of seconds. Vic-Press, the industry’s first ANSI Schedule 10S pipe sized press-to-connect system designed for off-the-shelf ASTM A-312 Schedule 10S stainless steel pipe, is an industrial-grade solution for quickly and reliably joining small-diameter piping systems. Vic-Press offers increased strength and durability and improved flow characteristics compared to light-wall tube systems; safer, more efficient pipe assembly than welding, threading and flanging; and meets or exceeds industry standards. Vic-Press is used with standard Schedule 10S stainless steel pipe, which offers increased strength and durability and eliminates the need to stock specialty pipe. The pipe-wall thickness of ANSI Schedule 10S pipe is up to double that of light-wall tube, and as a result, Vic-Press offers a superior life cycle, up to three times the end-load performance, up to twice the bend-load performance (view Schedule 10S vs. light-wall tube strength test video), up to a 52 percent increase in available flow, and up to a 23 percent reduction in pressure drop per 100 linear feet (30 meters) of pipe over tube-sized systems. The Vic-Press system is quick, simple and safe to install. Pipe is cut to size and deburred, marked for visual verification, and inserted into a lubricated coupling, fitting or valve. The Victaulic PFT510 handheld pressing tool is used to press the component onto the pipe-end, providing a positive mechanical interlock and creating a rigid, permanent, leak-tight joint. Patent-pending press detection technology enables the installer to confirm any unpressed joints as the system is filled. The Vic-Press system requires 70 percent fewer man-hours than welding to install, and significantly reduces rework. No flame or arc is required as with welding, reducing risk to workers and surroundings. With pressure tolerances up to 500 psi (3450 kPa), Vic-Press exceeds ANSI class 150 standards. Vic-Press meets ASME B31.1, 31.3 and 31.9 support requirements. The system is also ANSI/NSF 61 certified for potable water up to 180 degrees Fahrenheit (82 degrees Celsius). “Victaulic makes major investments in research and development to bring our customers innovative products such as Vic-Press,” said Susan Schierwagen, product manager for small-diameter systems with Victaulic. “Vic-Press offers our customers a small-diameter solution for off-the-shelf stainless steel Schedule 10S pipe, and joins our line of grooved stainless steel couplings, fittings, valves and accessories, allowing customers to rely on Victaulic as a single-source provider for all stainless steel pipe joining needs from 1/2 to 24 inches (15-600 millimeters). The Vic-Press system is available for 1/2 to 2-inch (15-50 millimeter) Type 304/304L and Type 316/316L pipe. Vic-Press products feature Grade “H” HNBR gaskets, suitable for services up to 210 degrees Fahrenheit (98 degrees Celsius). Alternative materials, including EPDM, fluoroelastomer and silicone, are available for services up to 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 degrees Celsius). Vic-Press is ideal for a number of wet and dry industrial and commercial applications, including potable water, oil, compressed air, lubricated air, noncombustible gases and general chemical services. About Victaulic: Founded in 1925, Victaulic is the world’s leading producer of mechanical pipe joining systems. Headquartered in Easton, Pa., Victaulic has manufacturing and distribution facilities worldwide and employs more than 3,500 people. The company develops products for a full range of industrial, commercial and institutional piping...

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